Research Publications by Bonneville Power Administration



A Road Map for Success: How Northwest Manufactured Housing Conservation Efforts Revolutionized an Industry - item #45 (PNNL, July 1993, 30 pgs) This informal history chronicles the evolution of an ongoing Bonneville effort to improve the energy efficiency of manufactured homes. By documenting the evolution of its manufactured housing project from humble beginnings through turbulent, often complex, technical developments to the realization of a successful program achieving full industry participation, this report provides readers the opportunity to see the processes and methods required to develop a successful public/private venture.

Achieving Major Energy Efficiency Improvements in Manufactured Housing - item #29 (PNNL, Feb. 1992, 12 pgs) This paper discusses the findings of the Residential Construction Demonstration Project in which Bonneville worked with regional manufacturers to build 150 manufactured homes that met the Northwest Power Planning Council’s Model Conservation Standards for residential energy efficiency. Data on energy use and cost effectiveness were analyzed, and the experiences of manufacturers, dealers, and consumers were studied.

Conducting Successful Programs to Increase the Energy Efficiency of Manufactured Housing - item #19 (PNNL, Aug. 1990, 7 pgs) This paper discusses a program conducted by Bonneville since 1985 to promote higher efficiency in manufactured homes. The program has included marketing studies, research projects, and a large-scale demonstration program. Key outcomes and lessons learned are also discussed. Information about Bonneville’s program should be of interest to planners and policymakers in other parts of the country.

Energy-Efficient Manufactured Housing Program (Fact Sheet) - item #31 (BPA, April 1992, 1 pg) This fact sheet describes a unique cooperative program in the Pacific Northwest, called for in the Northwest Power Planning Council’s 1991 Northwest Conservation and Electric Power Plan, that will make all electrically heated manufactured homes in the region meet the highest levels of energy efficiency.

Everyone Wins! A Successful Program for Rapidly Upgrading the Energy Efficiency of an Entire Housing Sector - item #48 (PNNL, Oct. 1993, 14 pgs) This paper outlines the successive events that eventually led to Bonneville’s Manufactured Housing Acquisition Program (MAP). Various phases described include resolving issues, laying the foundation, implementing a full-scale marketing program, and refining the program. Lessons learned and the transferability of the program are discussed.
Innovation in Manufactured Housing Energy-Efficiency Programs - item #37 (PNNL, Sept. 1992, 9 pgs) The paper discusses the innovative way in which changes in attitudes toward energy efficiency in the manufactured housing industry came about.

Manufactured Housing Acquisition Program (MAP) Update 4 - item #36 (BPA, Aug. 1992, 2 pgs) This Update provides the status of MAP as of August 27, 1992. It covers MAP home production, manufacturers’ participation, new items, advertising, utility agreements, state energy offices’ services, utility follow-up, six-month review, dealer coordination, tracking of MAP homes, and materials.

Manufactured Homes: Build Energy-Efficient Product Only - item #32 (BPA, April 1992, 1 pg) This press release, featured in the Conservation Monitor, announces the beginning of the four-year $120 million regionwide energy-efficient manufactured home program. The Manufactured Housing Acquisition Program is a cooperative program designed by Bonneville, investor-owner and public utilities, and 18 manufacturers.

Qualitiy New Homes That Can Save You Money - item #35 (BPA, June 1992, 1 pg) This brochure describes the features of a Super Good Cents manufactured home including level of insulation, energy-efficient windows and heating equipment, and indoor air quality.

When Manufactured Homes and Model Conservation Standards Meet - item#17 (PNNL, May 1990, a6 pgs) This paper discusses lessons learned by the manufacturers participating in the Residential Construction Demonstration Project to upgrade the energy efficiency of the manufactured homes they produce. It also discusses the costs involved and the improved thermal integrity achieved in the efficiency upgrades.


Studies Report Costs and cost Effectiveness of Conservation Measures in RCDP Manufactured Homes - item #22 (OSU, Jan. 1991, 6 pgs) This RCDP Technical Update summarizes four reports that document studies of Bonneville’s Residential Construction Demonstration Project and address the following questions; how much does it cost to meet Super Good Cents standards in manufactured homes, and how cost effective are these conservation measures?

Building Super Good Center Manufactured Homes - item #13 (OSU, Feb. 1990, 10 pgs) This videotape study guide, prepared by the Oregon State University Extension Service for Bonneville’s Super Good Cents Program, focuses on four elements: features that Super Goods Cents manufactured homes different from standard HUD-code homes, construction details in Super Good Cents homes, special components that may be required, and features that inspectors identify and check for.

Super Good Cents Manufactured Homes: Set-Up - item #14(BPA, Feb. 1990, 10 pgs) This videotape study guide, prepared by the Oregon State University Extension Service for Bonneville’s Super Good Cents Program, focuses on three elements: special materials and care required in five areas of Super Good Cents home set-up, valuable assistance and technical information you local utility representative provides, and Super Good Cents features the utility representative verifies.

Super Good Cents Technical Specifications for Manufactured Homes - item #24 (BPA, April 1991, 36 pgs) This report covers design qualification and certification, thermal efficiency, heating systems, moisture and air-quality control, and on-site specifications for Super Good Cents manufactured homes.

New High Density Insulation Has High R-Value; Requires Proper Installation - item #26 (OSU, Nov. 1991, 4 pgs) This RCDP Technical Update introduces new materials and different formulations of existing materials to replace loose fill and batts in ceilings and walls and rigid foam on basement walls. Manufacturers are producing high-density, high-R-value fiber glass batts and full-width products to meet different code and client needs.

Northwest HUD-Code Home Manufacturers Expand Energy-Efficiency Production - item #27 (PNNL, Nov. 1991, 2 pgs) This article was featured in Automated Builder and describes the impacts of the Super Good Cents Program on manufacturers and the underlying reasons for the success of the program.

Northwest Window Producers Expanding Energy-Efficient Line for HUD-Code Market - item #39 (PNNL, Feb. 1993, 1 pg) This article was featured in Automated Builder and describes the progress of leading window manufacturers in the Pacific Northwest, who have geared up to produce high-quality, argon-filled, low-emissivity vinyl windows in response to the needs of HUD-code manufacturers who are now building homes that significantly exceed the HUD-code energy efficiency requirements.

On-Site Specifications for MAP Homes Help Ensure Energy Savings - item #30(OSU, March 1992, 4 pgs) This RCDP Technical Update covers on-site specification and materials for setup crews to assemble manufactured homes built under the Manufactured Housing Acquisition Program.

Study Confirms Accuracy of SUNDAY in Predicting Space Heating Energy Use - item #28 (OSU, Jan. 1992, 4 pgs) This RCDP Administrative Update summarizes findings of a study by the Washington State Energy Office examining how well the SUNDAY model predicts monitored space heating energy consumption in 120 RCDP homes. Investigators analyzed how house size, architecture, heating system type, and house location affect SUNDAY predictions and determined which inputs to SUNDAY are most important for accurately predicting energy use. They also determined how mechanical ventilation systems affect SUNDAY predictions.


Current Practice in Manufactured Housing - item #6 (PNNL, May 1987, 92 pgs) This report discusses current industry production levels and their use as a reference point for analyzing the cost effectiveness of conservation upgrades. It also addresses issues of manufacturer costs for conservation upgrades, industry pricing policies, and manufacturer attitudes toward alternative conservation programs.

Economics and Utility Energy-Efficiency Programs: Energy-Efficient Manufactured Housing - item #38 (PNNL, Oct. 1992, 12 pgs) This paper discusses life-cycle cost analysis as a framework for highlighting differences between the economic criteria and perspectives of consumers and utilities, and examines other economic criteria. It presents information from the Pacific Northwest manufactured housing program to illustrate the application of this framework to a real-world program.

Energy Conservation and Affordability in Manufactured Housing - item #52 (PNNL, May 1994, 3 pgs) This summary gives a synopsis of a 1993 PNNL study that identified factors that influence a customer’s decision-making process when purchasing a manufactured home, especially an energy-efficient one.

Energy-Efficient Manufactured Homes: The Role of Lending and Appraisal Practices - item #41 (PNNL, March 1993, 95 pgs) This study evaluates the current industry practices that have the greatest influence on a consumer’s desire to own and ability to afford a manufactured home. The report tells what impact lenders, appraiser, and dealers have on the overall affordability of manufactured homes

Marketing Energy Conservation Options to Northwest Manufactured Home Buyers - item #1 (PNNL, Oct. 1985, 180 pgs) This report identifies energy conservation options for manufactured homes in the Northwest, notes their price and availability, examines barriers and incentives for purchase of these options, and describes a marketing plan to enhance the sale of options to improve the energy efficiency of new manufactured homes.

Marketing Manufactured Housing Under the "Super Good Cents" Program - item #2 (PNNL, Jan. 1986, 67 pgs) The study proposes a strategy for including manufactured housing in Bonneville’s Super Good Cents Program. The report presents information on the site-built SGC program, a characterization of manufactured housing consumers, options for including manufactured housing in the SGC program, and recommendations for including manufactured homes in the SGC program.

The Role of the DAPIA in the Manufactured Housing Process - item #3 (PNNL, March 1986, 20 pgs) This paper describes the function of Design Approval Primary Inspection Agencies (DAPIAs) and provides some insights into the design approval process for manufactured housing units.

Affordability and Other Factors Affecting the Purchase of Energy Efficient Manufactured Homes - item #43 (PNNL, June 1993, 80 pgs) This study evaluates the manufactured home owner’s purchase decision process and provides a better understanding of how consumers view a manufactured home’s affordability and energy efficiency. The study addresses HUD-code manufactured homes. The information in this report represents the first extensive primary data collected from manufactured home owners under Bonneville’s manufactured housing program.

Key Elements Affecting Manufactured Home Household Investments in Energy-Efficiency: An Empirical Analysis - item #46 (PNNL, January 1994, 80 pgs) This study focuses on the elements that underlie the behavior of HUD-ode manufactured home consumers, primarily buyer sensitivity to price and certain other behavior elements that come into play regarding consumer investments in energy efficiency.

What Price Mobile Homes? - item #54 (PNNL, Nov. 1994, 1 pg) This column appeared in Home Energy magazine and summarizes the report, "Key Elements Affecting Manufactured Home Household Investments in Energy Efficiency: An Empirical Analysis" (see item #46).

Bridging the Gap: Designing DSM Programs Based on the Difference Between Utility and Consumer Economic Perspectives - item #61 (PNNL, Aug. 1994, 7 pgs) This paper discusses the relationship between life-cycle costs and the energy-efficiency decisions of home buyers and utilities. It shows how key factors in life-cycle cost analysis such as discount rates, fuel prices, fuel price escalation rates, and risk adjustments affect the optimum energy efficiency choice.


Case Study of the Regional Manufacturers’ Participation in the Manufactured Housing RCDP - item #9 (PNNL, Dec. 1989, 50 pgs) This report interprets the experiences of the manufacturers participating in Bonneville’s RCDP in light of the program requirements and the manufacturers’ organizational structures and decision-making processes.

RCDP Studies Construction, Sale and Set-Up of Super Good Cents Manufactured Homes - item #21 (OSU, Nov. 1990, 4 pgs) This RCDP Technical Update summarizes manufacturers’ and dealers’ responses to survey questions about participation in the RCDP. Manufacturers reveal how challenges were met, what challenges remain, and keys to the future success of the program. Dealer responses focus on set-up procedures and their marketing and selling strategies.

Case Study of the Regional Manufacturers Not Participating in the Manufactured Housing RCDP - item #15 (PNNL, March 1990, 25 pgs) This report presents the characteristics, attitudes, and observations of manufacturers not participating in the RCDP. Interviews with key personnel at each nonparticipating plant provide a picture of the manufacturers’ production, their reasons for not participating, and their attitudes toward energy-efficiency in their industry.

Cost Data Collection for Manufactured Homes in RCDP - Volume 1, Main Text - item #11 (PNNL, January 1990, 34 pgs) This report describes the methodology PNNL used to collect technical and cost data and summarizes the information contained in the cost database.

Cost Data for Manufactured Homes in RCDP - Appendices - item #12 (PNNL, Jan. 1990, 200 pgs) This volume is a complementary volume to Cost Data Collection for Manufactured Homes in RCDP - Volume 1, Main Text. The appendices include the data collection forms, a data dictionary that defines the fields in the database, and selected raw data from each of the categories in the database: the base-case home, the RCDP home, and the most common home.

Manufactured Homes Cost Data Analysis Report - item #16 (Ecotope/WSEO, March 1990, 25 pgs) This report focuses on the reported costs for energy conservation measures installed in 150 manufactured homes by eight manufacturers under Bonneville’s RCDP. All measures were to meet the Super Good Cents specifications for thermal performance and ventilation. The purpose of this report is to develop statistically standardized costs that reflect the incremental price paid by consumers for these energy conservation measures.

Dealer Participation in BPA’s Manufactured Housing Residential Construction Demonstration Project - item #10 (BPA, Dec. 1989, 80 pgs) The report presents the methodology and findings of a dealer exit survey, conducted to assess the dealer component of Bonneville’s RCDP.

Non-Space Heating Electrical Consumption in Manufactured Homes - item #44 (BPA, June 1993, 44 pgs) This report summarizes submetered data of the non-space heating electrical energy use in a sample of manufactured homes. These homes were built to Super Good Cents insulation standards in 1988 and 1989 under the auspices of Bonneville’s RCDP Cycle 2. The purpose of this study is to establish a baseline for energy conservation in these areas and to present a method for estimating total energy saving benefits associated with these end uses.

Field Measurements of Heating Efficiency of Electric Forced-Air Furnaces in Six Manufactured Homes - item #55 (Ecotope, Oct. 1994, 37 pgs) This report presents the results of field measurements of heating efficiency for six manufactured homes in the Pacific Northwest heated with electric forced-air systems and is intended to be the first in a series of regional and national efforts to measure in detail the heating efficiency of manufactured homes.


Cost Effectiveness of Conservation Upgrades in Manufactured Homes - item #7 (PNNL, Sept. 1988, 160 pgs) This study addresses the costs of upgrading the efficiency of electrically heated manufactured homes in Bonneville’s service territory. It is one of several programs undertaken by Bonneville to analyze the efficiency of manufactured homes and to encourage the industry to produce more efficient homes and consumers to increase their demand for efficient units.

Cost Effectiveness of the Manufactured Housing Acquisition Program (MAP) - item #42 (Ecotope, April 1993, 19 pgs) This report calculates the cost effectiveness of MAP based on energy use simulations. It reviews and evaluates the costs currently associated with MAP’s energy conservation measures. Current MAP costs and benefits to the region, the utilities, and to the customers are presented.

Manufactured Homes Thermal Analysis and Cost Effectiveness Report - item #23(Ecotope, March 1991, 87 pgs) The study examines the thermal performance of homes built under Bonneville’s RCDP and estimates the cost effectiveness of individual conservation measures. The energy requirements of the RCDP homes were estimated using SUNDAY, a building simulation program modified to simulate duct systems. An optimization program was used to determine the most cost effective conservation measures.

Manufactured Homes Simulated Thermal Analysis and Cost Effectiveness Report - item #18 (Ecotope, May 1990, 63 pgs) This report analyzes the simulated thermal performance and cost effectiveness of conservation measures installed in manufactured homes built under Bonneville’s RCDP. Engineering Calculations and simulations were used to estimate the effects of the Super Good Cents specifications on the thermal performance of the homes.

New Manufactured Housing Energy Conservation in the Pacific Northwest - item #49 (WSEO/Ecotope/Moduline, June 1993, 6 pgs) This paper summarizes the MAP program - its evolution from the RCDP and Super Good Cents programs and its success across the region. The paper also summarizes analysis of energy costs and savings, and discusses its costs and benefits to the region, to consumers, to utilities, and to the environment.


Preliminary Assessment of Structural Insulated Panels in HUD-Code Manufactured Housing: Progress Report - item #40 (PNNL, Feb. 1993, 4 pgs) This progress report summarizes PNNL’s findings regarding the possible use of structural foam-core building panels in HUD-Code manufactured housing. It discusses the research method, preliminary findings, and feasibility of a demonstration project.

Structural Foam-Core Panels in Northwest HUD-Code Manufactured Housing: A Preliminary Assessment of Opportunities and Obstacles - item #47 (PNNL, July 1993, 80 pgs) This study reviews foam panel materials, fabrication processes, and construction techniques. The cost competitiveness of foam panels is analyzed since cost is a significant factor for the manufactured housing industry. The study surveyed three regional foam panel manufacturers and six regional HUD-code producers.

Sustainable Building Materials Product Directory for Manufactured Housing - item #51(PNNL, April 1994, 86 pgs) The directory describes a number of structural framing products that could be used in place of dimensional lumber in the manufactured housing industry.


Air Exchange Rates in New Energy-Efficient Manufactured Housing - item #25 (PNNL, June 1991, 6 pgs) This study describes the performance of the whole-house ventilation system and presents results of the air leakage and air exchange measurements of 139 newly constructed energy-efficient manufactured homes built under Bonneville’s RCDP and 35 current practice manufactured homes. Standard door fan pressurization was used to estimate shell leakiness, and a passive perflouorocarbon tracer was used to estimate air exchange rates.

Energy and Indoor Air Quality Measurements from Five Energy Conserving Manufactured Homes - item #4 (PNNL, Nov. 1986, 120 pgs) This study attempted to determine whether manufactured homes built to the Model Conservation Standards performed according to the energy requirements of the standards. Air exchange rates in these homes and indoor air pollutants levels were measured. All analyses were made under unoccupied conditions to establish a baseline independent of occupant characteristics and behavior.

Formaldehyde Measurements in Five New Unoccupied Energy-Efficient Manufactured Homes - item #5(PNNL, Nov. 1986, 11 pgs) This report presents the results of formaldehyde measurements in five manufactured homes built under Bonneville’s RCDP.

Infiltration/Ventilation Measurements in Manufactured Homes - item #20 (PNNL, Aug. 1990, 30 pgs) This report summarizes an infiltration/ventilation study conducted on 139 homes built under Bonneville’s RCDP and 10 current practice manufactured homes.

Manufactured Homes: Heat Loss Assumptions and Calculations; Heat Loss Coefficient Tables - item #34 (Ecotope, May 1992, 64 pgs) This manual describes assumptions and procedures for calculating U-factors and R-values for construction materials used in Bonneville’s Manufactured Housing Acquisition Program, also overall U-factors for component sections, and the impact of complex framing and thermal configurations on various components’ heat loss rates. Tables show heat loss calculations for several component configurations.

Fuel Choice Effects of the Manufactured Housing Acquisition Program - item #50 (PNNL, April 1994, 44 pgs) This study applies statistical analyses to assess whether MAP has altered fuel choice (electric or gas) for heating manufactured homes. Interviews with key program participants provide both qualitative and quantitative information that complements the direct statistical analyses.

Measured Infiltration and Ventilation in Manufactured Homes - item #33 (Ecotope, May 1992, 39 pgs) This report summarizes the results of infiltration measurements made on two groups of manufactured homes in Bonneville’s service area: 131 energy-efficient homes constructed under RCDP, and a control group of 29 homes not participating in energy-efficiency programs. Two basic techniques were used to estimate infiltration: the perfluorocarbon tracer method and the blower-door depressurization tests combined with an infiltration model developed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory.

Using a Model and Empirical Data to Analyze Manufactured Home Conservation Retrofits - item #8 (PNNL, Feb. 1989, 11 pgs) This study estimates energy savings for specific energy conservation measures in manufactured homes participating in the Hood River Conservation Project. Variations in the homes’ thermal characteristics before and after retrofit were used to calculate the energy savings, using PRISM and an adjustment procedure to provide estimates of heating energy consumption. Cost-estimating relationships for each component based on HRCP data were developed and levelized costs of retrofit measures were determined using the estimated costs with the energy savings estimates.


Summary of Manufactured Housing Acquisition Program (MAP) Process Evaluation Survey Results - item #56 (PNNL, Aug. 1995, 70 pgs) This study summarizes the home and occupant data collected on MAP and non-MAP manufactured homes built after 1992. These data include information about whether the homes are sited on private property or in subdivisions, what heating systems and appliances are used in the homes, what buyers knew about the MAP program, demographics of home occupants, financing and purchase decisions. Information is compared for MAP and non-Map homes.

Impact Evaluation for the Manufactured Housing Acquisition Program (MAP) - item #57 (PNNL, Oct. 1995, 44 pgs) This report presents the results of an impact evaluation of the Manufactured Housing Acquisition Program to determine the program’s energy impacts and cost effectiveness. During Phase 1 of the Map program (April 1992 to October 1994, before the national standard was upgraded) estimated regional average energy savings ranged from 3,8000 to 4,700 kWh/year. During Phase 2 after a tighter national standard raised the efficiency of base-level homes, energy savings estimates ranged from 2,500 to 3,000 kWh/year. Levelized cost estimates of the overall program ranged from 1.7˘/kWh (based on regional system costs) to 2.0˘/kWh (based on utility costs). MAP appeared to have significant market transformation effects that further lowered the program’s overall levelized costs. With more than 50,000 MAP homes built and sited in the region since 1992, consumers have come to expect MAP features and dealers have become used to selling them.

Impact Evaluation for the Manufactured Housing Acquisition Program: Technical Appendix - item #58 (PNNL, Oct. 1995, 54 pgs) This report provides detailed technical information to support the findings described in the Manufactured Housing Acquisition Program impact evaluation report (item #57). The appendix describes the three-tiered process used to analyze energy consumption. Analysis methods used included a comparison of annual billing data and a simplified regression analysis to adjust for major home characteristics; application of the Princeton Scorekeeping Method (PRISM); and a detailed regression analysis to control for occupant demographics, appliance inventories, and weather. This appendix report also compares the results with other studies of the MAP program.

Marketing Energy-Efficient Manufactured Homes in the Pacific Northwest: Results from Dealer and Consumer Focus Groups - Executive Summary - item #59 (PNNL, Dec. 1995, 4 pgs) This is a summary of report #60 which describes five focus group meetings that PNNL conducted for Bonneville Power Administration. Focus group meetings were held with manufactured home dealers in Portland, Seattle-Tacoma, and Boise and with home shoppers in Portland and Boise. The goal of the meetings was to provide Bonneville with information about consumers and dealers that could be used to design marketing efforts for energy-efficient Super Good Cents manufactured homes. The focus groups showed the MAP had changed the manufactured home market significantly: most manufacturers provide SGC features as standard features and most buyers expect homes manufactured in the Northwest to meet SGC standards.

Marketing Energy-Efficient Manufactured Homes in the Pacific Northwest: Results from Dealer and Consumer Focus Groups - item #60 (PNNL, Jan 1996, 35 pgs) See description for report #59.

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